Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) from Picosun
Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) is an advanced thin film coating method which is used to fabricate ultrathin, highly uniform and conformal material layers for several applications. ALD uses sequential, self-limiting and surface-controlled gas phase chemical reactions to achieve control of film growth in the nanometer/sub-nanometer thickness regime. Due to the film formation mechanism – the gases won’t react until in touch with the surface which means the film growth proceeds by consecutive atomic layers “up” from the surface – the ALD film is dense, crack-, defect- and pinhole-free and its thickness and structural and chemical characteristics can be precisely controlled on atomic scale. ALD process is digitally repeatable and it can be performed at relatively low temperatures. This gives the possibility to construct not only single material layers but also doped, mixed, or graded layers and nanolaminates, whereas low process temperature allows coating of also sensitive materials such as plastics and polymers. The list of ALD materials is wide, ranging from e.g. oxides, nitrides, fluorides, carbides, and sulfides to ternary compounds, metals (including noble ones), hybrid materials and polymers.